Contents

go

Starter Template

I saved this as a snippet for vscode to get up and running quickly with something better than the defaults for handling func main isolation. I’ve been working on modifying this a bit as I don’t really like using args, but am trying not to overcomplicate things as a new gopher.

I tend to like better flag parsing than using args, but it’s still a better pattern to get functions isolated from main to easily test.

The gist that I’ve taken from this and discussions in the community is ensure that main is where program termination is dedicated instead of handling this in your functions. This isolation of logic from main ensures you can more easily setup your tests as well, since func main() isn’t testable.

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package main

// package template from:
import (
    "errors"
    "fmt"
    "io"
    "os"
)

const (
    // exitFail is the exit code if the program
    // fails.
    exitFail = 1
)

func main() {
    if err := run(os.Args, os.Stdout); err != nil {
        fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "%s\n", err)
        os.Exit(exitFail)
    }
}

func run(args []string, stdout io.Writer) error {
    if len(args) == 0 {
        return errors.New("no arguments")
    }
    for _, value := range args[1:] {
        fmt.Fprintf(stdout, "Running %s", value)
    }
    return nil
}

Testing

Modules

What are Go Modules?

Go Modules are primarily a dependency management solution.

A module:

  • Is primarily a dependency management tool, not a project organization tool.

  • Is imported to get access to public exported members in your own project.

  • One module can have n binaries produced.

  • A module can be used in a monorepo or single CLI tool.

A module doesn’t:

  • Handle build or binary path metadata.
  • Have any relationship to the produced artifacts.

Module Tips

  • Use canconical import path (aka) github.com/sheldonhull/mygomod if you want to support go install commands.

  • Use mymod.local if no need to support remote imports or installs.

    • This allows gofumpt and tooling to correctly sort the imports from standard library apart from your own imports, without requiring canonical name format.
  • Stick with one module in the repo if possible, to simplify tooling, linting, and testing. This is important in monorepos as much of the tooling that uses paths like go test ./... will not work with multi-module repos in a project.

Project & Build Tooling

  • Use devtools.go to create a list of cli tools that should be installed with Mage.
  • Use tools.go to put _ "remotemodulename" in, and identify clearly that a tool such as Stringer or linters are not dependencies for the primary module, but instead are tooling dependencies.

Pre-Commit

Using Lefthook

Using Pre-Commit Tooling

Here’s how to setup pre-commit for Go projects.

  1. Install pre-commit for macOS: brew install pre-commit or see directions for curl/other options for WSL, Windows, Linux, etc.
  2. Use the template from TekWizely/pre-commit-golang: Pre-Commit hooks for Golang with support for Modules
    1. Several options are provided for fmt oriented commands. Comment out any duplicates that don’t apply.
  3. Finally initialize the pre-commit hooks in your repo by running: pre-commit install

Validate everything is working by running: pre-commit run --all-files

Periodically, you can run pre-commit autoupdate to ensure the latest version of the pre-commit hooks are upgraded.

Logging

At this stage, I’m using zerolog as I found it very easy to get moving with structured logs.

The output of this demo looks pretty good!

https://d33wubrfki0l68.cloudfront.net/8b939ddf9947644bc2c4a9c0c00fc80375e06132/88608/images/r1-d014-structured-console-output.png

Here’s a functional demo that can be used to bootstrap a new project with this.

Code Coverage Report

original post: 1

Use gopherbadge2

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go install github.com/jpoles1/[email protected]
  • Set ![gopherbadger-tag-do-not-edit]() in the readme, and then this gets replaced with a code coverage percentage badge.
  • Generate the required code coverage reports using:
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go test ./... -coverprofile ./artifacts/cover.out
go tool cover -html=./artifacts/cover.out -o ./artifacts/coverage.html
gopherbadger -md="README.md,coverage.md" -tags 'unit'

VSCode

Custom Tasks

Default Shells

This can ensure default behavior is processed on each OS, customizing the shell to use.

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{
  "version": "2.0.0",
  "presentation": {
    "echo": false,
    "reveal": "always",
    "focus": false,
    "panel": "dedicated",
    "showReuseMessage": true
  },
  "linux": {
    "options": {
      "shell": {
        "executable": "/usr/local/bin/zsh",
        "args": [
          "-l",
          "-c"
        ],
      }
    },
    "type": "shell"
  },
  "windows": {
    "options": {
      "shell": {
        "executable": "pwsh"
      }
    },
    "type": "shell"
  },
  "osx": {
    "options": {
      "shell": {
        "executable": "/usr/local/bin/zsh",
        "args": [
          "-l",
          "-c"
        ]
      }
    },
    "type": "shell"
  },
  "tasks": []
}

Run Lint

Add this to your .vscode/tasks.json file and you’ll get the full linting output in your problems pane.

By default, the golangci-lint config should include --fast to avoid impact to your editing.

This will ensure all tasks that a pre-commit check or CI check will be run and provided in the problems panel.

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"tasks": [
    {
      "label": "go-lint-all",
      "detail": "This runs the full range of checks and the VSCode problem matcher will pull all of them in. Without this, the default behavior of VSCode is to run with --fast to reduce impact to IDE.",
      "type": "shell",
      "command": "golangci-lint",
      "args": [
        "run",
        "--out-format",
        "colored-line-number"
      ],
      "problemMatcher": [
        "$go"
      ],
      "presentation": {
        "echo": true,
        "reveal": "always",
        "focus": true,
        "panel": "dedicated",
        "showReuseMessage": true,
        "clear": true
      }
    },

Run Nicely Formatted Test Output

Tparse

While the testing extension is great, sometimes I just want to see a console summary. This task uses Tparse and provides a nicely formatted summary (including coverage numbers, cached tests, and more).

Install tparse with: go install github.com/mfridman/[email protected].

Run manually like this: GOTESTS='slow' go test ./... -v -cover -json | tparse -all

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{
  "label": "go-test-formatted-output",
  "type": "shell",
  "command": "go",
  "options": {
    "env": {
      "GOTEST": "slow integration",
    }
  },
  "args": [
    "test",
    "./...",
    "-v",
    "-cover",
    "-json",
    "|",
    "tparse",
    "-all"
  ],
  "problemMatcher": []
},

Gotestsum

Install with: go install gotest.tools/[email protected].

Then run like this: gotestsum or try the alternative formats like: gotestsum --format dots-v2 or --format pkgname, or --format testname.

Effective Go

Principles I’ve gleaned over-time and am quoting or bookmarking.

Don’t hide the cost

Source: Bill Kennedy in Ultimate Go 3

If we are doing construction to a variable, we use value construction. Avoid pointer semantic construction if not in the return.

Example:

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// clear visible cost of the allocation by value construction and passing of pointer back up the call stack
func createSomething() *something {
  u := something{
    name: "example",
  }
  return &u // <--- This makes clear the cost and allocation back up the callstack.
}
// cost is obscured by construction being a pointer
// and returning a value that is not clear to reader if value or pointer
func createSomething()*something {
  u := &something{
    name: "example",
  }
  return u // <--- Not good. Hides the cost, and require reading function further to find that this is a pointer.
}

Making cost obvious and visible is a big priority for readable maintainable code with a team.

Running External Commands

Repos


  1. go-r1-day-41 ↩︎

  2. GitHub - jpoles1/gopherbadger: Generate coverage badge images using Go! ↩︎

  3. [Readability - Ultimate Go]((https://github.com/ardanlabs/gotraining/tree/master/topics/go#readability↩︎


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